Target Populations and Treatment Cost for Bempedoic Acid and PCSK9 Inhibitors: A Simulation Study in a Contemporary CAD Cohort

Christopher Blaum, Fabian J Brunner, Alina Goßling, et al


Clin Ther. 2021 Aug 24;S0149-2918(21)00263-0

First published: August 27, 2021  DOI: 10.1016/j.clinthera.2021.07.019



The lowered LDL-C treatment goal of the 2019 European Society of Cardiology dyslipidemia guidelines results in a significant increase in the projected need for cost-intensive proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitors. Addition of bempedoic acid (BA) to established oral lipid-lowering medication (LLM) has the potential to enable affordable LDL-C goal attainment, particularly in patients with statin intolerance (SI). The goal of this study was to quantify the target populations for BA and PCSK9 inhibitors as well as the related treatment costs to achieve the LDL-C goal of <55 mg/dL and a ≥50% reduction assuming the addition of BA to LLM.


This study included 1922 patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) from the contemporary observational cohort study INTERCATH. A Monte Carlo simulation incorporating an algorithm adding sequentially a statin, ezetimibe, optionally BA, and a PCSK9 inhibitor was applied to achieve the LDL-C treatment goal, with consideration of both partial and total SI. Two scenarios were simulated for both a moderate (2% full and 10% partial) and a high (12% full) rate of SI: (1) without BA; and (2) with BA.


Patients’ mean age was 69.3 years, and the median baseline LDL-C level was 86.0 mg/dL. The need for a PCSK9 inhibitor would be 41.4% for a moderate rate of SI and 46.1% for a high rate of SI. Addition of BA would: (1) reduce the need for a PCSK9 inhibitor to 25.3% and 29.4%, thus lowering the annual overall treatment cost incurred through PCSK9 inhibitor ± BA per 1 million patients with CAD by 13.3% and 10.5%; (2) lower the cost per prevented event in the entire cohort (–5.0% and –6.3%), although at the price of fewer prevented events (–8.7% and –4.5%); and (3) reduce the cost per prevented event (–6.8% for both rates of SI) while preventing more events (7.6% and 6.9%) in the subpopulation of patients with full SI.


Use of BA is projected to reduce the need for PCSK9 inhibitors as well as the treatment cost for add-on LLM. The subpopulation of patients with full SI might profit particularly.

Full Article